Forceps are hand-held instruments used for grasping and holding the objects. They are similar to tweezers and tongs and can be longer or smaller in size. There are more than 700 types, which are used as per the need of the situation. Usually, they are used when singleton fetus in cephalic position fails to develop. Another condition can be when the delivery is required to be done at its second stage.
It is used for the surgery or for medical procedures are known as surgical forceps. They are mainly used during the delivery of the child. There blades are made of rigid material and their contact surface helps in grasping the baby’s head.
It can be used for grasping dressings, needles or handling tissues. For handling tissues they have small teeth on their tips so that they do not have to apply pressure while handling. The dressing instruments are larger and look very much like tongs. There are four main components of forceps:
1. Blades: This oval and elliptical blade helps in grasping fetus. liposuction cannulas
2. Handles: The person operating holds the instrument through the handles and applies traction to the fetal head.
3. Lock: There are different types of locks available and are used as an articulation between the shanks.
4. Shanks: Shanks are either parallel or crossed for connecting the blades to the handles.
Forceps delivery is dependent on the level and the position of the head in the birth canal. According to the gynecologists, they are classified into low, mid and high forceps. The low forceps are applied only when the fetal scalp is visible and has reached the pelvic floor. The mid forceps can be used at many points of fetal head.
It is very important to understand when to use forceps so as to avoid any complications.
- The cervix must be fully dilated and retracted.
- The operator should know the Pelvis category.
- The head must be engaged.
- The membrane should be ripped apart.
- The operator should be competent and should not use aggressively forceps and vacuum.
- There should be adequate facilities and support available for the patient convenience.
Forceps surgery is an alternative to caesarean delivery. It can be done even when then the baby is not in the right position but not in the condition when the head of the baby is towards the vaginal canal. There are many negative aspects it. Yes, it can cause mild to severe metal retardation, skull fractures or even nerves can be damaged. If there are both positive and negative aspects then sufficient thought and care should be taken before using the forceps.